Encoding is the ability to use and understand how to apply the letter-sound correspondence to write. It is the necessary skill required to recall sounds and relate the letter formation to spell words. 

When an individual struggles with encoding they will demonstrate difficulty with taking a word apart by each sound, they have a hard time applying rules and conventions, as well as using knowledge of root words and affixes. 

A Speech Language Pathologist can determine if a child has all the prerequisites for writing and spelling. Some of the areas to target would include: phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, left to right orientation of print, and written punctuation.